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Hepatocellular carcinoma

Hepatocellular carcinoma
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Malignant liver tumor, or hepatocellular carcinoma: detection and risk factors

Hepatocellular carcinoma ranks second among the causes of death in men from malignant neoplasms. The first place belongs to lung cancer. This disease is not rare, but it is diagnosed, unfortunately, like most oncological diseases in Ukraine, mostly at the III-IV stage of the disease. The reasons for advanced forms of hepatocellular carcinoma are the late appearance of organ-specific symptoms. Weakness, problems with digestion, decreased appetite often lead to self-medication with symptomatic means and a late visit to the doctor. The only reliable method to detect hepatocellular carcinoma is a screening MRI examination of the liver.

Risk factors for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma:

Chronic viral hepatitis B is a risk factor for the development of 50% of all cases of hepatocellular carcinoma among all age groups and the majority of cases of hepatocellular carcinoma in children.

Chronic viral hepatitis C. For example, in Japan, markers of chronic viral hepatitis C are found in 80-90% of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.

Cirrhosis of the liver, which develops as a result of the following diseases:

• alcoholic liver disease;

• non-alcoholic steatohepatitis;

• primary biliary cirrhosis;

• hemochromatosis;

• deficiency of α1-antitrypsin;

• autoimmune hepatitis.

The effect of aflatoxins, highly toxic carcinogens produced by various species of microscopic fungi representing several species of the genus Aspergillus, mainly fungi of the species A. flavus and A. parasiticus, which grow on the grains, seeds and fruits of plants with a high oil content, such as peanuts.



Prognosis: The five-year survival rate for hepatocellular carcinoma is only 18%.

The "Oberig" clinic has accumulated a huge experience of successfully helping patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. The LiverLab diagnostic complex — the most modern software installed on the latest generation MRI machine, allows not only to establish the exact localization of the tumor, but also to recognize a malignant neoplasm with high reliability.

The team of the Center for Pancreatic Surgery and Transplantation of the universal clinic "Oberig" (Kyiv), headed by Oleg Gennadiyovych Kotenko - Doctor of Medical Sciences, professor, leading Ukrainian oncologist, transplant doctor, laureate of the State Prize of Ukraine in the field of science and technology (2008 ). — in charge of your health. Apply!

Hepatocellular carcinoma: classification, stages

Hepatocellular carcinoma is a primary malignant tumor of the liver. Hepatocellular carcinoma is the fifth most common malignancy worldwide.

Hepatocellular carcinoma is diagnosed in more than 90% of all primary liver tumors.

Hepatocellular carcinoma is diagnosed in almost 85% of patients with liver cirrhosis.

In men, after lung cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma is the second leading cause of cancer-related death.

TNM classification of hepatocellular carcinoma

The TNM classification system takes into account such characteristics of the tumor as its size, the number of tumors, the presence or absence of vascular invasion (tumor growth into blood vessels), as well as the involvement of lymph nodes and metastasis.

T is a primary tumor.

Tx — the primary tumor cannot be evaluated.

T0 - there are no signs of a primary tumor.

T1a is a solitary tumor 2 cm or less in greatest dimension with or without vascular invasion.

T1b — a solitary tumor larger than 2 cm in the largest dimension without vascular invasion.

T2 — solitary tumor larger than 2 cm with vascular invasion; or multiple tumors, none larger than 5 cm in greatest dimension.

T3 — multiple tumors, at least one or more of them larger than 5 cm in the largest dimension.

T4 — tumors with involvement of the main branch of the portal vein or hepatic vein or with direct invasion of neighboring organs, including the diaphragm, except for the gall bladder, or with perforation of the visceral leaf of the peritoneum.

N — regional lymph nodes

Nx — regional lymph nodes cannot be evaluated.

N0 — metastasis to regional lymph nodes is absent.

N1 is a metastasis in a regional lymph node.

M is distant metastasis

M0 — no distant metastasis

M1 — distant metastasis is present.

Stages of the tumor process


























Any Т




Any Т

 Any N


Hepatocellular carcinoma is a fairly common liver cancer with a low survival rate without proper treatment, especially surgery, including liver transplantation.
Establishing an accurate diagnosis, developing a detailed plan for examination, treatment and prognosis of long-term consequences in hepatocellular carcinoma requires highly qualified and highly specialized medical care, which can be provided by specialists from the Center for Pancreatic Surgery and Transplantation of the Oberig Universal Clinic. under the guidance of the leading Ukrainian surgeon, oncosurgeon, transplant doctor, MD, prof. Kotenko Oleg Gennadievich

Call by phone: 044 521 30 03
Or sign up for a consultation on the website: https://my.oberig.ua/en/appointment/

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